Knowledge Application: This approach often requires changes in the curriculum that emphasize depth of understanding over coverage of content, and assessments that emphasize the application of understanding to realworld problems and social priorities. Assessment change focuses on complex problem-solving and embeds assessments into the ongoing activities of the class.

Teachers must have a deep knowledge of their subject and the ability to apply it fl exibly in a variety of situations. They must also be able to create complex problems whose solutions measure
students’ understanding.